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Which one of the following laboratory tests is most likely to be abnormal in a 14-year-old boy at Tanner stage 3 who has dental enamel defects, chronic diarrhoea consisting of foul-smelling stools, and sudden growth failure (decreasing growth velocity) resulting in short stature?

Thyroid-stimulating hormone
Insulin-like growth factor 1
Immunoglobulin A anti–tissue transglutaminase
Follicle-stimulating hormone
Verified response Ans: C Approximately 50% of patients with Celiac disease experience weight loss, chronic diarrhea, and abdominal distention. Older children most likely present with extraintestinal manifestations, including enamel defects, dermatitis herpetiformis, osteopenia, short stature, delayed puberty, and iron-deficiency anemia; these findings can occur in the absence of other, more-typical symptoms of celiac disease. The preferred initial screening test for celiac disease is measurement of immunoglobulin A (IgA) anti–tissue transglutaminase (TTG) while the patient is on a gluten-containing diet. The recommendation is to obtain first serologic tests for celiac disease (anti-TTG-IgA) and then to proceed with the intestinal biopsy to diagnose the condition in positive cases. Serology, especially TTG, also has a major role in monitoring response to treatment. Although improvement of symptoms on a gluten-free diet can suggest celiac disease, histologic confirmation is recommended given the long-term burden of such a diet. Declining growth velocity might suggest hypothyroidism, the patient also reports diarrhea rather than constipation, and the physical examination identified dental enamel defects, which are more suggestive of celiac disease. Weight gain would be expected with hypothyroidism. Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) is produced in the liver, and low levels reflect growth-hormone deficiency. Although patients with growth-hormone deficiency will present with short stature, they do not tend to have GI symptoms or dental enamel defects. Zinc deficiency can cause a watery diarrhea but is rare and is most typically seen in older children with chronic diseases such as Crohn disease, sickle cell disease, or liver disease. Measuring FSH levels is helpful in the evaluation of delayed puberty but is not usually helpful in the evaluation of short stature or growth failure. This patient is progressing through puberty normally, with Tanner stage 3 development at 14 years of age.
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Truncuc Arteriosus II age 8 years. sex male any suggestions?

Can somebody please explain Froin's syndrome? I came across this term while revising for SC compression. Thank u in advance😊

Verified response Froin's syndrome is characterized by marked cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) xanthochromia (yellow discoloration of the CSF) and hypercoagulability due to increased protein content. The cause of the high protein content of the spinal fluid is meningeal irritation and inflammation. Pseudo-Froin's syndrome has been described as stagnation of the CSF distal to a spinal block due to spinal disc bulging or tumors.
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